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      Methods of persuasion

      By appeal to reason:  

      Logical argument making logical appeals to reason


      ethos: how the character and credibility of a speaker influence an audience to consider him to be believable. This could be any position in which the speaker--from being a college professor of the subject, to being an acquaintance of person who experienced the matter in question--knows about the topic.

      pathos: the use of emotional appeals to alter the audience's judgment.

      logos: the use of reasoning to construct an argument. Logos appeals include appeals to statistics, math, logic, and objectivity. For instance, when advertisements claim that their product is 37% more effective than the competition, they are making a logical appeal.

      Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence.  A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena, and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses. These steps must be repeatable in order to predict dependably any future results. The process must be objective to reduce a biased interpretation of the results. Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so it is available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, thereby allowing other researchers the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them. This practice, called full disclosure, also allows statistical measures of the reliability of these data to be established.

      Proof absolute, indisputable facts

      By appeal to emotion:

      Bandwagon- Convincing the audience that everyone is doing it. So if a member of the audience wants to be socially acceptable, they will also do it.   

      Fear- Making the consumer feel insecure or unprotected. (Example: Using vehicle crash statistics to sell a safer vehicle.) 

      Buzz Words- Popular words, slogans, or phrases. “That’s fire" “I’m lovin’ it!”

      Generalizations-Speaking broadly about a narrow topic, “Walmart is your only place to shop for Christmas gifts  

      Loaded Words- Words with an emotional appeal.  Freedom

      Propaganda: is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completely truthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage a particular thought, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented.

      Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person to engage in some sort of behavior, frequently sexual in nature. Seduction involves temptation and enticement, often sexual in nature, to attract or influence the behavior of another.

      Tradition & Faith “This is the way it’s always been done.”  “This is the way God wants it to be.”

      Testimonial  The use of a famous person to endorse a product or service.  Movie stars and sports athletics are often used. 

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